By the beginning of the 20th century, exploitation had become a permanent condition of an actor's employment. Producers set their own working conditions and pay scale. There was no compensation for rehearsals or holidays and rehearsal time was unlimited.

The emergence of the labor movement changed the face of American Theatre forever. The stage hands' union, The National Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees, was recognized in 1910, and The Dramatists' Guild, formed in 1912, became the bargaining agent for all playwrights.

The Women of Equity Bound for Wall Street , 1919

Equity's constitution was drafted by May 1913, and Actors' Equity Association was formally recognized on July 18, 1919 by the American Federation of Labor (later to become the AFL-CIO).

In the ensuing years, rules were negotiated concerning bonding, which required producers to post sufficient advance funds to guarantee salaries and benefits; minimum salaries; rehearsal pay; restrictions on the employment of foreign actors and protections in dealings with theatrical agents.

In 1919, Equity called the first strike in the history of the American theatre, demanding recognition as the performers' representative and bargaining agent. The strike lasted 30 days, spread to eight cities, closed 37 plays, prevented the opening of 16 others and cost millions of dollars.

Chorus performers joined in the fight along with the actors. Five days after the strike began, Chorus Equity was formed. Hollywood screen star Marie Dressler, who began her career in the chorus at $8 per week, was instrumental in forming the chorus union, and was elected its first president.

When the strike ended, the producers signed a five-year contract that included most of Equity's demands.

Actors' Equity and Chorus Equity eventually merged in 1955.

Marie Dressler and Ethel Barrymore During the 1919 Strike

Actors' Equity has always been a leader in the area of Civil Rights.

In 1947, when the National Theatre in Washington, D.C. barred black audience members, Equity resolved that its members would not play at the National and the theatre closed. Five years later, the National reopened under different management and with a non-discrimination policy.

In 1961, the League of Theatres and Producers agreed that no actor would be required to perform in any theatre or place of performance where discrimination is practiced against any actor or patron by reason of race, creed or color. This policy has since been extended to prohibit discrimination based on gender, sexual preference or political belief.

Equity has also adopted policies to help increase employment opportunities for actors of color, disabled, senior, and women performers.

The Equity-League Pension & Health Trust Funds were created as the result of a 13-day strike which closed all Broadway theatres in June, 1960.

The Equity-League Pension & Health Trust Funds were created as the result of a 13-day strike which closed all Broadway theatres in June, 1960. 1964 saw the equalization of the rehearsal and the minimum performance salary. A "Principal Interview" requirement (since expanded to include auditions) was also established, providing an opportunity for Equity performers to be seen by producers. The Association is also concerned with fostering the growth of American theatres. Equity has championed the preservation of historic theatres as a vital element of our cultural heritage and is exploring new methods and technologies to increase communication with its members to be as responsive as possible to their needs.